Crash Ratings for Bollards

Q: What are the crash ratings for bollards?

 

A: The ASTM standards have replaced DoD standards as the most common standard for crash-testing gate or barrier systems. All crash tests will now be tested under the ASTM F2656 standard.

THE 3 FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CRASH RATINGS

Three basic factors determine crash test ratings:

 

  1. The weight of the vehicle
  2. The speed at which the vehicle is traveling
  3. The distance the vehicle travels beyond the barrier

The ASTM ratings are judged by the vehicle’s weight and maximum speed on impact with the barrier or crash gate. The P-rating in these standards is the penetration rating described as how far the vehicle will push past the barrier after impact. These are equivalent to the DoD’s L-ratings. 

 

With penetration ratings, the highest-rated barriers will be able to stop vehicles from penetrating in the shortest distance possible. A P-1 rating is the highest level, which denotes that the barrier can stop a vehicle within 3.3 feet of impact or under, P-2 is second at 3.3 feet – 23 feet. The lowest rating is P-3, which encompasses 23.1 feet to 98.4 feet of penetration. 

ASTM F2656 Barrier Crash Ratings

K-RATINGS: OLD METHOD

The Department of Defense (DOD) crash ratings, also known as K-ratings, have been around since 1985 but have been replaced with the updated M ratings that provide more in depth data data.

M-RATINGS: NEW METHOD

The newer M Rating system takes into account a wider range of vehicle weights, speeds and penetration distances than the previous K Rating.

Using standards from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), ASTM crash ratings are different because they’re based on how far a vehicle’s payload travels beyond a barrier, rather than its front. Like K-ratings, M-ratings are based on vehicle size, speed and travel distance.

M-ratings are also divided into P1, P2, P3 and P4 classifications, based on how far the vehicle traveled beyond the barrier:

  • P1 rating: A vehicle traveled 3.3 feet or less beyond the barrier.
  • P2 rating: A vehicle traveled between 3.31 and 23 feet.
  • P3 rating: A vehicle traveled between 23.1 and 98.4 feet.
  • P4 rating: A vehicle traveled farther than 98.4 feet.

 

Examples of ASTM’s crash barrier ratings:

Vehicle Type Weight – up to. Penetration rating at specific speed. The number refers to vehicle speed in MPH. 
Small Car (SC) 2,430 lbs. / 1102 Kg

SC30 (50 kph)

SC40 (65 kph)

SC50 (80 kph)

SC60 (95 kph)

Full Size Sedan (FS) 4,630 lbs. / 2100 Kg

FS30

FS40

FS50

FS60

Pickup Truck (PU) 5,070 lbs. / 2300 Kg

PU30

PU40

PU50

PU60

Medium Goods Vehicle (M) 15,000 lbs. / 6800 Kg

M30

M40

M50

Heavy Goods Vehicle (H) 65,000 lbs / 26500 Kg

H30

H40

H50

ASTM penetration levels:

P1 Penetration up to 3.3 feet (1 m.)
P2 Penetration up to 23 feet (7 m.)
P3 Penetration up to 98 feet (30 m.)
P4 Penetration greater than 98 feet (30 m.)